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15-Star Flag Over Greene Ville

The first time the Star Spangled Banner, a fifteen star flag, was flown over an American army headquarters was probably in Greene Ville.

​A local Historian Frazer Wilson cites the following entry from James Elliot's journal on June 15, 1795. This being the day appointed for holding the treaty intended to be held between the United States of America, and the hostile tribes of the northwest of Ohio, the auspicious morning was distinguished by a discharge of fifteen cannons and the display of a large and beautiful new flag, at the end of an elegant flagstaff lately erected in the citadel.

Another confirming entry is found on July 3, 1795, in the minutes of the treaty negotiations as taken by aid de camp H. DeButts. General Wayne addressed the chiefs, 'Tomorrow....the flag of the United States, and the colors of this legion shall be given to the wind, to be fanned by its gentle breeze, in honor of the birthday of American freedom. I will show  you our colors, that  you may know them tomorrow. Formerly they were displayed as ensigns of war and battle; now they will be exhibited as emblems of peace and happiness.

These excerpts were taken from the commemorative book published by the Treaty of Greene Ville Bicentennial Commission, 1995. This interesting  book is available for purchase at the Garst Museum store.

 

Treaty of Greene Ville ~ 1795

The Treaty Room at Garst Museum highlights this significant historical US and Native American treaty. With its signing, the Northwest territory of the United States was opened to settlement.

​The continued movement of whites into Native American hunting grounds and village territory set the scene for the Indian Wars in the country Northwest of the Ohio river. Chief Little Turtle became the leader whose directives were to result in the destruction of two American armies. He also was the catalyst that led to the establishment of a lasting settlement.

​In 1790, General Josiah Harmer, with a poorly trained and ill equipped army and volunteer militia, was sent to attack the Indian villages on the upper Maumee River. Harmer was soundly defeated. President Washington reinforced the army and assigned General Arthur St. Clair to command. St. Clair went north from Ft. Washington (Cincinnati) and built Ft. Hamilton and Ft. Jefferson. On October 1791, St. Clair left Ft. Jefferson and camped at a spot later called Ft. Recovery on November 3, 1791. On November 4, the army of 1400 were surprised at sunrise by a host of Native Americans. Within a few hours, St. Clair was forced to retreat under cover provided by Col. William Darke. Nine hundred men, women and children were killed.

​President Washington sent more soldiers and provisions. Now the army totaled 5,000 men. General Anthony was placed in command. Wayne followed the trail opened by St. Clair, but did not stop at Ft. Jefferson. Instead, he moved 6 miles north to  strategic site where he built a stronghold of logs that covered 55 acres. He called the place Fort Greene Ville in honor of his Revolutionary comrade, Nathanael Greene.

​Once again the solders and Native Americans clashed at Ft. Recovery and then at Maumee, and at Fallen Timbers. This time the British allies betrayed the Native Americans and Wayne decisively defeated the confederated tribes. The Native Americans decided to pursue an honorable peace with the Americans. So it was that Anthony Wayne began the preparations for a great assembly of the confederated tribes at Ft. Greene Ville. Greene Ville was the headquarters of the Legion of the United States from 1793 to 1796. It may be that it was at Ft. Greene Ville that the first fifteen star American flag was flown.

The Second Treaty of Greene Ville ~ 1814

The Treaty with the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnee, Senecas and Miamis of 1814 was signed in Greene Ville on July 22, 1814. Once the Native American tribes realized they could no longer ally themselves with the British due the the British defeat in the war of 1812, they agreed to this treaty of peace.​

​There was a second Treaty signed at Greene Ville in 1814. It was titled the Treaty with the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnee, Senecas and Miamis. Representing the United States as signers were William Henry Harrison and Lewis Cass, governor of the Michigan territory.

​The Ohio Historical Society lists Native American signers as follows:
Wyandots:

  • Tarhe or Crane

  • Harroneyough or Cherokee Boy

  • Tearroneauou or Between The Legs

  • Monaco

  • Rusharra or Stookey

  • Senoshus

  • Zashuona or Big Arm

  • Teanduttasooh or Punch

  • Tapuksough or John Hicks

  • Ronoinness or Sky Come Down

  • Teendoo

  • Ronaiis

  • Omaintsiarnah or Bowyers

Delawares:

  • Taiunshrah or Charles

  • Tiundraka or John Bolesle

  • Eroneniarah or Shroneseh

  • Kicktohenina or Captain Anderson

  • Lemottenuckques or James Nanticoke

  • Laoponnichle or Baube

  • Joon Queake or John Queake

  • Kill Buck

  • Neachcomingd

  • Montgomery Montawe

  • Capt. Buck

  • Hooque or Mole

  • Captain White Eyes

  • Captain Pipe

  • McDaniel

  • Captain Snap

Shawnees:

  • Cutewecusa or Black Hoof

  • Tamenetha or Butter

  • Piaseka or Wolf

  • Pomtha or Walker

  • Shammonetho or Snake

  • Pemthata or Turkey Flying By

  • Wethawakasika or Yellow Water

  • Quetawah Sinking

  • Sokutchemah or Frozen

  • Wynepuechsika or Corn Stalk

  • Chiachska or Captain Tom

  • Quitawepeh or Captain Lewis

  • Teawascoota or Blue Jacket

  • Tacomtequah or Cross The Water


 

CROSSROADS
OF DESTINY

The Crossroads of Destiny exhibit at the Garst Museum provides each visitor with the opportunity to experience the Fort Greene Ville settlement. From daily life to details highlighting both Treaties with the Indian nations, you will find an amazing amount of information that will impact you for years to come. 

THE TREATY OF GREENE VILLE

Treaty Attendance

There were 180 Wyandot, 381 Delaware, 143 Shawnee, 45 Ottawa, 10 Kickapoo and Kaskaskia, 46 Chippewa, 340 Potawatomi, 73 Miami and Eel River and 12 Wea and Piankeshaw in Greene Ville on the 3rd of August 1795.

 

The Treaty Signing

At the signing of the Treaty of Greene Ville August 3, 1795, beside Wayne and the eighty chiefs were William Henry Harrison; Meriwether Lewis and William Clark; Isaac Zane, the founder of Zanesfield, Ohio; and Zebulon Montgomery Pike, the discoverer of Pike's Peak.

 

Treaty Medals

A total of 94 chiefs and sub-chiefs may have been given Treaty of Greene Ville medals at the signing on August 3, 1795. Many are lost. Only about 6 are known to exist.